C) Gravitational tugs from Jupiter prevented material from collecting together to form a planet. This preview shows page 4 - 5 out of 5 pages. A) less than that of any terrestrial planet. 20) How much mass does the Sun lose through nuclear fusion per second? As of 2006, around 200 extrasolar planets have been identified using the radial velocity technique. If you have ever heard the changing pitch of a siren as it passed by, you have experienced the Doppler Shift first hand. We monitor the brightness of a star as the planet passes in front of the star's disk. 13) Based on its surface temperature of 5,800 K, what color are most of the photons that leave. However, the two most promising techniques for finding more Earth-like extrasolar planets are direct imaging and transits (so long as we can improve our technology enough!) The depth of the dip in a star's brightness due to the transit of a planet depends most directly on. So to make some sense of all the stuff I just said, most planets so far have been found using the Doppler and transit methods. 6) How much brighter is a Sun-like star than the reflected light from a planet orbiting around it? In November of 2013, after the failure of two of its reaction wheels, the telescope began its K2 mission, during which time an additional 515 planets have been detected and 178 have been … In fact, our formation model does not allow jovian planets to form that close to their stars. It applies to both sound and light (although they are somewhat different mathematically). E) Star 1 is 10 times more distant than Star 2. 16) Which of the following statements about spectral types of stars is true? The transit method has the advantage of yielding a planet's size. The, 11) The most distant stars we can measure stellar parallax for are approximately. Which of the following best explains why the nebular theory(as it stood before the discoveries of extrasolar planets) had not predicted the existence of hot Jupiters? 16) The reason that most extrasolar planets are found close to their parent stars is. C) Their masses are similar to Jupiter but they are very close to the central star and therefore hot. D) all of the above . The discovery of hot Jupiters led scientists to reconsider the nebuar theory. Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for understanding our own Solar System? C) determining its mass from its gravitational pull on a spacecraft, satellite, or planet. B) Solar neutrinos have been detected, but in fewer numbers than predicted by theoretical. minimum mass, orbital radius, orbital eccentricity. 13) The spectral sequence sorts stars according to, 14) The spectral sequence in order of decreasing temperature is. The __________ successfully discovered thousands of extrasolar planets with a spacecraft that searched for transits among some 100,000 stars. 4) What two forces are balanced in what we call gravitational equilibrium? 25) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find stars that have the largest radii? Furthermore, the size of the stellar Doppler wobble is so large that it must be caused by a planet with at least a mass of 0.6 MJ. The graph shows how a star's orbital speed varies with time because of the gravitational tug of an orbiting planet. The Doppler technique only provides a measure of the minimum mass of a planet because B) Jupiter-mass, in Jupiter-like orbits. 3) What are the standard units for luminosity? C) Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits. A) Earth-mass, in Earth-like orbits. C) Most stars in the cluster are yellow or reddish in color. D) 70 percent hydrogen, 28 percent helium, 2 percent other elements. B) dust injected into the stratosphere from the impact absorbed visible light from the Sun. 24) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find stars that are cool and luminous? A planet's size can be determined by observing its transit across a star. D) We see many sunspots on the surface of the Sun. Scientists have detected more than 400 planets using the Doppler technique but have yet to discover a solar system similar to ours. Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly. B) All stars in the cluster are approximately the same age. The radial velocity technique is able to detect planets around low-mass stars, such as M-type (red dwarf) stars. Instead of looking for a wobble back and forth across our field of vision, scientists study the light from a star to see if it is moving toward us and away from us in a cyclical manner. A) surface temperature on the horizontal axis and luminosity on the vertical axis. big planets in edge-on orbits around small stars. 32) Where did comets that are now in the Kuiper belt originally form? E) have plotted distributions of the orbital radii of the asteroids. Notice the four locations marked by the bold numbers 1 through 4. 22) Which is the strongest of the fundamental forces in the universe? The composition of a planet can be determined by, The reason that most extrasolar planets are found close to their parent stars is. 24) The depth of the dip in a star's brightness due to the transit of a planet depends most directly. A) big planets in edge-on orbits around small stars. E) total amount of light that the star radiates each second. their masses are similar to jupiter but they are very close to the central star and therefore hot. 11) Which layer of the Sun do we normally see? Astronomers have discovered more planets around other stars than in our Solar System. Transits of multiple planet systems can be analyzed to infer planetary masses. As of December 2017, 662 of all exoplanet discoveries (both candidates and those that have been confirmed) were detected using the Radial Velocity Method alone – almost 30% of the total. What kinds of planets are easiest to detect with each method? What happens, C) It is rapidly converted to energy when it meets an ordinary electron, resulting in matter-, 24) The overall fusion reaction by which the Sun currently produces energy is. How do we think the "hot Jupiters" around other stars were formed? It requires large telescopes, and it provides only minimum mass when orbital inclination to Earth is unknown. This is because the parent star will wiggle more with a large planet nearby, thereby creating a larger and more easily detectable spectral shift. This technique works only in the rare cases when the planet's orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. B) The original alphabetical labeling did not correspond to surface temperature and thus had to. However, when the first hot Jupiters were discovered, their existence seemed inconsistent with the nebular theory because this theory predicts that __________. E) the orbital eccentricity of the planet. 30) Why does the plasma tail of a comet always point away from the Sun? 26) The composition of a planet's atmosphere be measured during a transit by analyzing. 9) Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly A) Earth-mass, in Earth-like orbits. C) chunks of a larger asteroid that was shattered by a collision. 20) Which of the following terms is given to a pair of stars that appear to change positions in the, 21) Which of the following terms is given to a pair of stars that we can determine are orbiting. Question 9 0.5 out of 0.5 points If every star had an Earth-like planet in an Earth-like orbit, how many could be detected by a transit? B) by comparing its infrared thermal emission to its visible-light reflection, 16) If we know the size of an asteroid, we can determine its density by. E) The electron neutrinos created in the Sun change into another type of neutrino that we do not, 33) The light radiated from the Sun's surface reaches Earth in about 8 minutes, but the energy of. 1) Approximately, what basic composition are all stars born with? A human hair viewed from a distance of 2000 miles. Our modern theory of solar system formation—the nebular theory—successfully accounts for all the major features of our own solar system. By transits? Giant planets in more distant orbits have also been detected through imaging and gravitational microlensing surveys . Which of the following is a legitimate conclusion from the graph shown, which is based on analysis of Kepler results? What would happen to the planets in a solar system where the central star did not have a strong wind? A) minimum mass. D) near the radius at which they orbit today. Which one of the following can the transit method tell us about a planet? 35) What is the typical size of comets that enter the inner solar system? Current techniques can measure stellar motion to less than. the fact that large, icy objects orbit the Sun in the Kuiper belt. However, then m p is large and m s is small it does have a noticable effect. B) the planet's mass and orbital distance. 23) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find stars that are cool and dim? The four graphs show Doppler data for four different stars. 20) What are the two main differences between extrasolar planetary systems discovered to date, C) extrasolar planet orbits tend to be closer and more eccentric than in our Solar System, 21) A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. The transit method of planet detection works best for. A planet's gravitational tug on a star can also be seen in measurements of the star's radial velocity, its motion toward or away from us along the line of sight from Earth to the star.As the star orbits the system's center of mass, it alternately moves toward, then away from us. 8) By itself, the Doppler technique provides a measure of a planet's . Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits. Typically the mass of the planet m p is small enough to ignore. Which of the following do we learn about the planet? What are the strengths and limitations of the transit method? A) the bubbling pattern on the photosphere produced by the underlying convection, B) areas of the corona where magnetic field lines project into space, allowing charged particles. C) The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years. planets detected via the doppler technique have been mostly jupiter-mass in very close orbits why are many of the newly detected extrasolar planets called hot jupiters their masses are similar to jupiter but they are very close to the central star and therefore hot 8) By itself, the Doppler technique provides a measure of a planet's . C) It shows that we do not fully understand the formation of our Solar System. (Hint: Because the mass of 51 Pegasi is about the same as the mass of our Sun, you can use Kepler's third law in its original form, p2=a3. 18) Hydrogen fusion in the Sun requires a temperature (in Kelvin) of, 19) At the center of the Sun, fusion converts hydrogen into. 17) The Doppler technique only provides a measure of the minimum mass of a planet because. Based on the model types shown in Figure 13.16 in the textbook, a planet made almost entirely of hydrogen compounds would be considered a, Use Kepler's third law to find the planet's average distance (semimajor axis) from its star. 36) Which of the following is true about low-mass stars compared to high-mass stars? 10) Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostlyA) a wide range of … It's best for detecting massive planets with close-in orbits. the transit and Doppler methods together. 10) From the center outward, which of the following lists the "layers" of the Sun in the correct, C) core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona. 5) Why do asteroids and comets differ in composition? Until the launch of Kepler it was the method that had found the most planets. C) the amount and frequency of the star's motion are both higher. Doppler spectroscopy (also known as the radial-velocity method, or colloquially, the wobble method) is an indirect method for finding extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs from radial-velocity measurements via observation of Doppler shifts in the spectrum of the planet's parent star.. 880 extrasolar planets (about 21.0% of the total) were discovered using Doppler spectroscopy, as of February 2020. 10) Where are the Trojan asteroids located? Today, the leading hypothesis for the existence of hot Jupiters is that they formed in their outer solar systems and then migrated inward. Multiple-planet systems have been identified around other stars via the Doppler technique. Choose the correct description of advantages gained if a planet can be detected by both methods. 39) Why are Cepheid variables so important for measuring distances in astronomy? 14) Why do sunspots appear dark in pictures of the Sun? extrasolar planet orbits tend to be closer and more eccentric than in our Solar System. 5) What are the standard units for apparent brightness? 3) What do we mean when we say that the Sun is in gravitational equilibrium? 14) Why isn't there a planet where the asteroid belt is located? Consider the planet that causes the stellar motion shown in Plot 2 (be sure you have clicked the "Plot 2" button in the lower window of the animation). So we can only detect a small fraction of the existing planets. 34) What happens to energy in the convection zone of the Sun? 1. the astrometric technique 2.The transit method 3.the Doppler method 4.Hubble images A) The chromosphere is the source of ultraviolet light, and the corona is the source of X rays. 1) Which of the following statements about comets and asteroids is true? 15) Why is the spectral sequence of stars not alphabetical? C) Their luminosity can be inferred from their period. Current techniques can measure stellar motion to less than. The __________ is used to find extrasolar planets by carefully monitoring changes in a star's brightness with time. Stellar orbits are point reflections of their planets’ orbits, scaled down by the planet-to-star mass ratios. What is planetary migration, and how may it account for the surprising orbits of many extrasolar planets? If you have ever heard the changing pitch of a siren as it passed by, you have experienced the Doppler Shift first hand. Typically the mass of the planet m p is small enough to ignore. Its disadvantage is that few planets have the necessary orbital alignment to even be detectable. D) because they rarely interact with matter. 28) Studies of sunquakes, or helioseismology, have revealed that. The Doppler Effect Wails and Redshifts . A) The solar wind electromagnetically "blows" the ions directly away from the Sun. This technique is called the radial velocity or "wobble" method. The reason that most extrasolar planets are found close to their parent stars is the amount and frequency of the star's motion are both higher. Spotting the Doppler shift of a star's spectra is another handy exoplanet detection technique and it was the technique used to find the Pegasi 51b, the first planet detected around a Sun-like star. D) all of the above . are more massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star. Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits If every star had an Earth-like planet in an Earth-like orbit, how many could be detected by a transit? B) three-quarters hydrogen, one-quarter helium, no more than 2 percent heavier elements, 2) Since all stars begin their lives with the same basic composition, what characteristic most. Calculate the average density of the planet. Amateur astronomers are able to detect extrasolar planets with backyard telescopes using the transit method. An extrasolar planet that is rocky and larger than Earth is often called a __________. The astrometric technique of planet detection works best for, The size and shape of a planet's orbit can be determined by, A planet's density can be measured by combining. 32) Viewed from afar, the transit of Earth would cause the Sun's brightness to dim by, 33) If every star had an Earth-like planet in an Earth-like orbit, how many could be detected by a, 1) In the late 1800s, Kelvin and Helmholtz suggested that the Sun stayed hot thanks to, A) It predicted that the Sun could last only about 25 million years, which is far less than the age, 2) When is/was gravitational contraction an important energy-generation mechanism for the, C) when the Sun was being formed from a collapsing cloud of gas. A planet’s density can be measured by combining Approximately how many other planetary systems have been discovered to date? B) are more massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star. C) They formed as gas giants beyond the frost line and then migrated inwards. Most of the planets discovered around other stars are more massive than Jupiter. What technique, C) finding the main-sequence turnoff point of the stars. While the Doppler technique is most widely used for detecting extrasolar planets, it is best suited to look for very massive planets orbiting close to their parent star. A) The strength of gravity on small asteroids is less than the strength of the rock. First, planets are found around stars more massive than the Sun which are young enough to have protoplanetary disks. #3) Which types of planets are most easily detected by Doppler measurements? Jovian planets always form in the cold, outer regions of their star system; Terrestrial planets always form in the warm, inner regions of their star system; Jovian planets can migrate inward and disrupt the orbits of terrestrial planets. Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits. Which method could detect a planet in an orbit that is face-on to the Earth? 40) Which of the following statements about an open cluster is true? It requires large telescopes, and it provides only minimum mass when orbital inclination to … The star TrES-1 has a radius of about 85 % of our Sun's radius. Discovering planets through the __________ requires obtaining and studying many spectra of the same star. A) A gap is located at an average orbital distance, and asteroid orbits often have large. Are there certain planets that each method cannot detect, even if the planets are very large? However, the two most promising techniques for finding more Earth-like extrasolar planets are direct imaging and transits (so long as we can improve our technology enough!) What are the two main differences between extrasolar planetary systems discovered to date and our Solar System? The ancients debated the existence of planets beyond our own; now we know of thousands. 32) Which of the following is the most common type of main-sequence star? Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits If every star had an Earth-like planet in an Earth-like orbit, how many could be detected by a transit? Currently, velocities of giant planets have been measured in the region of 1-100m/s. measuring the positions of stars on the sky, By itself, the Doppler technique provides a measure of a planet's, minimum mass; orbital radius; orbital eccentricity, Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly, Current techniques can measure stellar motion to less than. They formed as gas giants beyond the frost line and then migrated inwards. C) orbital eccentricity. C) orbital eccentricity. 7) Which of the following correctly states the luminosity-distance formula? This causes the parent star to “wobble” and the velocity of this wobble depends on the mass of the planet and the distance at which it orbits from the parent star. Almost all the planets detected so far are in the Milky Way. The velocity change of the star is a measure. A) Most are unchanged since their formation in the solar nebula. Which, B) Higher temperature would cause the rate of nuclear fusion to rise, which would increase the. Compared to the planets of our solar system, the composition of a __________ most resembles the compositions of Uranus and Neptune. Overview; A) It dredged up material that gave us our first direct look at Jupiter's interior composition. 27) How do we know what goes on under the surface of the Sun? minimum mass, orbital radius, orbital eccentricity. Each dot on this graph represents an extrasolar planet; the green dots (labeled) represent planets of our own solar system. 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