[24], The region of Kerala was possibly engaged in trading activities from the 3rd millennium BCE with Sumerians and Babylonians. Kerala has 1084 females per 1000 males with a rate of 1.084 which is higher than the national figure of 0.940. A series of attacks by the Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of Ays although the dynasty remained powerful until the beginning of the 10th century. Communism in Kerala. PROFILE , [citation needed] After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was fractured into about thirty small warring principalities under Nair Chieftains; most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle.[49][50]. They were not affected by this move and this was considered as a treachery as these companies and estates were formed by and during the British rule. 5. During the early part of Kulasekhara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvananthapuram was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century and thus the region … [43] However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. Every monument is an insight into the charming history of God’s Own Country. Highest gold consumption in the country Source. At its zenith these Later Cheras ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. Due to ideological differences the CPI-ML split into several groups. This resulted in protests against the British by Muslims of the Indian sub-continent known as the Khilafat Movement, which was supported by Mahatma Gandhi in order to draw the Muslims into the mainstream national independence movement. ", Jeffrey, Robin. ", Hunter, Thelma. Famous festivals in Kerala. [33][34] The Cochin Jews believe that their ancestors came to the west coast of India as refugees following the destruction of Jerusalem in the first century CE. He was forced to shift his capital (c. CE 1405) further south. The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya and certain schools of Buddhism. George Menachery – historian, editor of The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, editor of The Indian Church History Classics (The Nazranies) Gopi Kottoor – internationally renowned poet; Hassan Thikkodi – writer, poet, Chairman of MES Raja Residential School Palakkad Fort is also called as Tipu's Fort (Hyder Ali's son) and remains one of the famous forts in Kerala. Chathukulam, Jos, and Joseph Tharamangalam. Kerala borders with only 2 states – Karnataka in north and Tamil Nadu in east. [9] These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves (Chenkallara), Hood stones (Kudakkallu), Hat stones (Toppikallu), Dolmenoid cists (Kalvrtham), Urn burials (Nannangadi) and Menhirs (Pulachikallu). In the 8th century, Adi Shankara was born at Kalady in central Kerala. Events, Year Wise. "History and Historiography in Constituting a Region: The Case of Kerala", This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 06:28. His works in Sanskrit concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita (nondualism). There are many historical places in state Kerala. Here is the list of 23 Historical Places in Kerala. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus. Narayanan, a Kerala-based historian, in his book, Calicut: The City of Truth states that the Eradi was a favourite of the last Later Chera king and granted him, as a mark of favor, a small tract of land on the sea-coast in addition to his hereditary possessions (Eralnadu province). During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a number of fortresses along the Malabar Coast. MGS NARAYANAN , ", Jeffrey, Robin. Lakhs of farms were owned by large establishments, companies and estate owners. Kerala has 44 rivers out of which 41 flows westwards while remaining 3 flows to east. This place possesses a marvelous statue of St. Sebastian imported from Italy, and is looked upon as the largest shrine of the St. Sebastian. He led the Pychy Rebellion (Wynaad Insurrection, Coiote War) against the English East India Company. Confluence of religions Franke, Richard W., Pyralal Raghavan and T. M. Thomas Isaac. Kerala offers a wide number of attractions for travelers, including backwaters if Kerala , verdant hill stations in Kerala and great beaches as well. He also established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mimamsa school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. "Governments and culture: How women made Kerala literate. European trading interests of the Dutch, French and the British East India companies took centre stage during the colonial wars in India. [8], Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. These two parties have alternating in power since 1982. Nicknamed the “father of history,” Herodotus is credited with essentially inventing the genre, the origins of which lie in epics and travelogues. He is popularly known as Kerala Simham (Lion of Kerala). "History Writing and Global Encounters in Sixteenth-Century Kerala" (PhD. Encyclopædia Britannica. [28] Megasthanes, the Greek ambassador to the court of Magadhan king Chandragupta Maurya (4th century BCE) mentions Muziris and a Pandyan trade centre. Kerala also witnessed several social reforms movements directed at the eradication of social evils such as untouchability among the Hindus, pioneered by reformists like Srinarayana guru and Chattambiswami among others. [10] However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state. [77] In 1757, to check the invasion of the Zamorin of Calicut, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of Hyder Ali of Mysore. The Samoothiri Maharaja of Kozhikode permitted the Portuguese to trade with his subjects. Two things were the real reason for the reduction of poverty in Kerala one was the policy for wide scale education and second was the overseas migration for labour to Middle east and other countries. Nehru was reluctant but when his daughter Indira Gandhi, the national head of the Congress Party, joined in, he finally did so. Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal trading port centres of the Chera kingdom. The combined history of the state is a treasure. The Cheras were mentioned as Ketalaputo (Keralaputra) on an inscribed edict of emperor Ashoka of the Magadha Empire in the 3rd century BCE,[2] as Cerobothra by the Greek Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and as Celebothras in the Roman encyclopedia Natural History by Pliny the Elder. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Organised expressions of discontent with British rule were not uncommon in Kerala. Popularly known as the Dutch Palace, the Mattancherry Palace is a Portuguese palace in Mattancherry, Kochi, in the state of Kerala. "Back from Shingly: Revisiting the premodern history of Jews in Kerala. * Mental and physical well-being. Venad - Kingdom of Quilon The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Ketalaputo (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Ashoka of Magadha. They truly manifests the rich cultural heritage of Kerala. The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade. [84], The political alliance have strongly stabilised in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance. The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages. No country in the world can claim equality with Ayurveda in Kerala. [73] Nonetheless, the Portuguese suffered severe setbacks due to attacks by Samoothiri Maharaja's forces, especially naval attacks under the leadership of admirals of Kozhikode known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. [66] Ma Huan (1403 AD), the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He)[67] states the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. There were harbours of Naura near Kannur, Tyndis near Koyilandy, and Bacare near Alappuzha which were also trading with Rome and Palakkad pass (churam) facilitated migration and trade. [47][48] As a result, many temples were constructed across Kerala, which according to M. T. Narayanan "became cornerstones of the socio-economic society". A. M. Athar Ali; Mubarak Ali; Charles Allen (writer) *Body defense and longevity therapy *Beauty practice. Buddhism and Jainism disappeared from the land. [64][65] Ibn Battuta (1342–1347), who visited the city of Kozhikode six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city. [53][54][55] His activities in Kerala was little and no evidence of his influence is noticed in the literature or other things in his lifetime in Kerala. "Kerala." Until the end of the 11th century, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. ", Lankina, Tomila, and Lullit Getachew. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008, Page 285. [35][36] Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; and Jewish, Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration might account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas, and Muslim Mappilas. Samoothiri allied with Muslim Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode to develop his military power. "Hindu Kingship and the Origin of Community: Religion, State and Society in Kerala, 1750-1850", Bijukumar, V. "Radicalised civil society and protracted political actions in Kerala (India): a socio-political narrative.". However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Samoothiri and finally led to conflict. Pristine beaches, wildlife sanctuaries, exotic hill stations and history laden forts complete a mesmerizing experience for tourists. The state of Kerala was created in 1956 from the former state of Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara District of Madras state. [48], The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. A close-up picture of famous historian M.G.S. In 1761 the British captured Mahé, India, and the settlement was handed over to the Rajah of Kadathanadu. Here we list some of the famous churches in Kerala that are worth paying a visit-#1 Arthunkal Church (St. Andrew’s Basilica, Arthunkal) St Andrews Basilica aka Arthunkal Church was built in 16 th century by Portugese missionaries. Malabar and South Kanara districts were part of British India's Madras Presidency. In the meantime, Marthanda Varma annexed many smaller northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala. Pliny mentions Muziris as India's first port of importance. ", Jeffrey, Robin. The government controlled the police, which made 150,000 arrests (often the same people arrested time and again), and used 248 lathi charges to beat back the demonstrators, killing twenty. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty: Thrippappur and Chirava, merged into the Venad family and established the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. "Jawaharlal Nehru and the smoking gun: Who pulled the trigger on Kerala's communist government in 1959?. [11] The studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Also known as Thiruvonam, the festival is celebrated by all citizens of Kerala, irrespective of caste, class, creed, community and social … According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (hill) and the Persian/Arabic word Barr (country/continent). 1. At its zenith these Later Cheras ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. In 1921, the Khilafat Movement in Malabar culminated in widespread riots against the British government and Hindu population in what is now known as the Moplah rebellion. Veluthat, Kesavan. Kerala, with the abundant historical landmarks and monuments grabs the attention of domestic as well as foreign tourists. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Samoothiri and Rajah of Kochi—they allied with Kochi and when Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, he established his headquarters at Kochi. Venad was a kingdom in the south west tip of Kerala, which acted as a buffer between Cheras and Pandyas. He was born in Sabines and was opposing the old Roman aristocracy, and was supporting Julius Caesar. Search for a Photo, Category & Sub Category, Photo ID, Special Collection, Keywords, Personalities, It initiated pioneering land reforms, aiming to lowering of rural poverty in Kerala. In 1783, the British agreed to restore to the French their settlements in India, and Mahé, India was handed over to the French in 1785. [61][62] M.G.S. Many important events associated with history of Kerala can be traced back to Anchuthengu Fort; the ‘Attingal Rebellion of 1721’ wherein the local people, agitated with injustice of Britons sieged the fort and killed a contingent of 140 British traders, is still remembered as the first and one of the very crucial collective moves against the British rule in Kerala. Ezhil Malai As in other parts of ancient India, Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Hindu beliefs during the first five centuries. [80][81], It refused to nationalise the large estates but did provide reforms to protect manual labourers and farm workers, and invited capitalists to set up industry. Santacruz Basilica-Kochi. Narayanan, of Kerala, in a serious mood. Even though Sankara was against all caste systems, in later years his name was used extensively by the Brahmins of Kerala for establishing caste system in Kerala. In 1936, Sree Chithira Thirunal Balaramavarma, the ruler of Travancore, issued the Temple Entry Proclamation, declaring the temples of his kingdom open to all Hindu worshipers, irrespective of caste. The theoretical difference in the communist party, i.e. Magnificent forts, palaces, architectural monuments represent the ruling dynasties and cultures that existed here. His entire kingdom was then a land of immense prosperity and happiness. Namboodiripad. "Matriliny, Marxism, and the birth of the communist party in Kerala, 1930-1940. Onam is one of the most famous and colorful festivals in Kerala, celebrated with much fervor and gaiety. In the 4th century, the Knanaya Christians migrated from Persia and settled in southern Kodungallur. The Cheras regained control over Kerala in the 9th century until the kingdom was dissolved in the 12th century, after which small autonomous chiefdoms, most notably Venadu, arose. Kerala is bordered by Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Arabian Sea. "Indian communism and the Kerala experience of coalition government, 1967–69. Most of these Kerala lakes were built for drinking and irrigation. The two kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin joined the Union of India after independence in 1947. [79] It was the first time a Communist government was democratically elected to power anywhere in the world. ", Menon, Dilip M. "A prehistory of violence? During the early part of Kulasekhara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvananthapuram was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century and thus the region became a part of the Cheras. Maritime contacts [21][22] Old Tamil works such as Patiṟṟuppattu, Patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku and Silappatikaram are important sources that describe the Cheras from the early centuries CE. [2] Kerala was alternatively called Kerala as well as Malabar. "The Kerala model in the time of COVID19: Rethinking state, society and democracy. Al-Biruni (AD 973 - 1048) must have been the first writer to call this state Malabar. Bekal Fort [18] The location of Vanchi is generally considered near the ancient port city of Muziris in Kerala. PORTRAIT , Photo Courtesy: Thejas Panarkandy 🎂 Birthdays of Famous Historian / Celebrity, in This Month, Born in (or Nationality) India. Saint Thomas Christians claim to be the descendants of the converts of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Jesus Christ although no evidence that Thomas ever visited Kerala has been established. Historical records regarding the origin of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode is obscure. Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (Kerul Varma Pyche Rajah, Cotiote Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was the Prince Regent and the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Kottayam in Malabar, India between 1774 and 1805. "Documents of Investiture Ceremonies" in K. K. N. Kurup, Edit., "India's Naval Traditions". 1. [3] The Arab writers had called this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Munibar. The fortress is known for its grandeur and a great history; the strategical location of the fort attracted many rulers who tried to capture it. [28] They intermarried with local people, resulting in formation of the Muslim Mappila community. © 2004 The Hindu Images, All Rights Reserved. The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government. [74][75] A group of pirates known as the Pirates of Tangasseri formerly lived at the Cemetery. Portuguese period The Dutch Malabar (1661–1795) in turn were weakened by their constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar. [76] The remnants of St. Thomas Fort and Portuguese Cemetery still exist at Tangasseri. Is there any information of Simon Britto and whether he is a legislative assembly member? On 1 July 1949, the two states were merged to form Travancore-Cochin. Here is the list of 10 Most Famous Historical Monuments of Kerala 1. In 1779, the Anglo-French war broke out, resulting in the French loss of Mahé, India. State : KERALA [42], Much of history of the region from the 6th to the 8th century is obscure. But here you will get travel information about only those places which have historical importance. ", Dale, Stephen Frederic. [57] The most powerful kingdom of Kerala during the colonial period, Travancore, was developed through the expansion of Venad by Mahahrajah Marthanda Varma, a member of the Thrippappur branch of the Ay Dynasty who ascended to the throne in the 18th century. They co-existed harmoniously with each other and with local Hindu society, aided by the commercial benefit from such association. Please provide background or any detail on RSS attacks on Christians particularly in Chitoor, Kerala", https://doi.org/10.1080/14631369.2019.1601005, Kerala Modernity: Ideas, Spaces and Practices in Transition, Malabar on the Columbia University, New York website, About the Dutch colonial presence in Kerala, Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Kingdom of Calicut), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Kerala&oldid=998617054, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abraham, Renu Elizabeth. As a result, to this, ever since 1979, the power has been clearly alternating between these two fronts without any change. ", Jeffrey, Robin. [46] For the local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Nair Chieftains known as Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis. He travelled extensively across the Indian subcontinent founding institutions of the widely influential philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. Edakkal Caves, Wayanad.. An archaeologist stumbled upon the caves in 1890 that dates back to the Neolithic age. In 1766, Haider Ali of Mysore defeated the Samoothiri of Kozhikode – an East India Company ally at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode to his state.[78]. CPM is the part of the uprising of Naxalbari movement in Bengal which leads to the formation of CPI(ML) in India. List of notable or famous historians from India, with bios and photos, including the top historians born in India and even some popular historians who immigrated to India. The Portuguese Cemetery, Kollam (after the invasion of Dutch, it became Dutch Cemetery) of Tangasseri in Kollam city was constructed in around 1519 as part of the Portuguese invasion in the city. [6] It is also mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. He was banished from the Earth to rule over one of the netherworld (Patala) planets called Sutala by Vamana. A new generation of female historians are on our TVs, on our bookshelves and on our social media channels, making history more accessible than ever before. Tipu Sultan ceded Malabar District to the British in 1792, and South Kanara, which included present-day Kasargod District, in 1799. [58] Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of Chera dynasty, is probably the founder of the Venad royal house, and the title of Chera kings, Kulasekara, was thenceforth adopted by the rulers of Venad. ", Jeffrey, Robin. [13] Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE. From the Kodungallur line of the Cheras rose the Kulasekhara dynasty, which was established by Kulasekhara Varman. The violence alienated public opinion. During the early Middle Ages, Namboodiri Brahmin immigrants arrived in Kerala and shaped the society on the lines of the caste system. [25] Phoenicians, Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, Jews, Arabs and Chinese were attracted by a variety of commodities, especially spices and cotton fabrics.[26][27]. In 1919, consequent to their victory in World War I, the British abolished the Islamic Caliphate and dismembered the Ottoman Empire. He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day), and the matrilineal system of succession. Ramanathaiyer, Sundar, and Stewart MacPherson. Only a few of the books of this history of Rome have survived. The state of Kerala consumes about 20% of the country's gold. [1] From the Kodungallur line of the Cheras rose the Kulasekhara dynasty, which was established by Kulasekhara Varman. The Treaty of Mavelikkara was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region. Bose, Satheese Chandra and Varughese, Shiju Sam (eds.) After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular.[70][71][72]. This list may not reflect recent changes . [79] In 1957, elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held, and a reformist, Communist-led government came to power, under E. M. S. "The ‘Kudumbashree woman’ and the Kerala model woman: Women and politics in contemporary Kerala.". [7], There are legends dealing with the origins of Kerala geographically and culturally. It is a land of mesmerizing natural beauty. 3. In his masterpiece, “The Histories,” he declared at the outset his intention to “prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time.” He then exhaustively detailed the Persian Empire’s expansion and subsequent clash with the city-states of Greece in the 5th century B.C., while also adding in tabloid-worthy asides, such as an allegation that Egyptian women uri… [60] Eralnadu province was situated in the northern parts of present-day Malappuram district and was landlocked by the Valluvanad and Polanadu in the west. “ The church is located in edappally near to metro Station and lulu mall, beautiful Architecture and clean atmosphere inside the church, parking facilities are there, Recommended tourist spot during kochin visit. Cassius Dio wrote a history of the Civil Wars of 193-7 and a history of Rome from its foundation to the death of Severus Alexander (in 80 books). also host the famous boating festival during Onam and attract tourists from all over India as well as from abroad. Calicut Shankara represented his works as elaborating on ideas found in the Upanishads, and he wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon (Brahma Sutra, principal upanishads and Bhagavad Gita) in support of his thesis. The non-violent and largely peaceful Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was instrumental in securing entry to the public roads adjacent to the Vaikom temple for people belonging to untouchable castes. [5], The oldest of all the Puranas, the Matsya Purana, sets the story of the Matsya Avatar (fish incarnation) of Lord Vishnu, in the Western Ghats. The edifice of the Mattancherry Palace perfectly reflects … The early Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Rashtrakutas. Its difficult to discuss about all places but the places which are famous are listed over here. Browse famous birthdays sorted by profession, birth place and birth region. Their trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and fort in his territory. List of Famous Palaces in Kerala Yes, I am going to deliver information about Historical Places of Kerala. [45] The era witnessed also a shift in political power, evidenced by a gradual increase of Namboothiri Brahmin settlements, who established the caste hierarchy in Kerala by assigning different groups separate positions. Legends such as The Origin of Kerala tell the establishment of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppu, near present-day Kondotty by two young brothers belonging to the Eradi clan. [14][15][16] Historian M. R. Raghava Varier of the Kerala state archaeology department identified a sign of "a man with jar cup" in the engravings, which is the most distinct motif of the Indus valley civilisation. Kerala is a state of the Malabar coast located in South India built by Lord Parashurama. BUST , Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1997, Robin Jeffrey, "Jawaharlal Nehru and the smoking gun: Who pulled the trigger on Kerala's communist government in 1959?. The state of Kerala is a beautiful state from a religious and spiritual point of view. Kerala – The Land Of Gods; is situated at the south-west corner of India. The magnificent forts, palaces and architectural monuments symbolises different dynasties, communities that existed in Kerala. Credit: THE HINDU, Creation Date: 2003-12-29 [83], From 1967 to 1970, Kunnikkal Narayanan led a Naxalite movement in Kerala. cites a stone inscription discovered at, Varier, M. R. Raghava. This church is more than 500 years old and is one of the most famous churches in Kerala. Eradis subsequently moved their capital to the coastal marshy lands and established the kingdom of Kozhikode[63] They later assumed the title of Samudrāthiri ("one who has the sea for his border") and continued to rule from Kozhikode. While Chrirava Moopan had his residence at Kollam, the Thrippappur Moopan resided at his palace in Thrippappur, 9 miles (14 km) north of Thiruvananthapuram, and was vested with the authority over the temples of Venad kingdom, especially the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple. File Size: [43][44] Kerala witnessed a flourishing period of art, literature, trade and the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. [59] The Venadu King then also was known as Venadu Mooppil Nayar. Mysorean interlude [3] From the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century CE) itself, the Arab sailors used to call Kerala as Male. Of Hinduism state is a place full of coconut trees Portuguese to trade with the of. 1000 males with a rate of 1.084 which is higher than the national figure 0.940... 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